Nitrate reductase activity and inheritance of grain protein in six barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. and Hordeum distichum) by Krisda Samphantharak

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Statementby Krisda Samphantharak.
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Nitrate reductase activity and inheritance of grain protein in six barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L. and Hordeum distichum)Author: Krisda Samphantharak. Title: NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY AND INHERITANCE OF GRAIN PROTEIN IN SIX BARLEY CULTIVARS (HORDEUM VULGARE L.

AND HORDEUM DISTICHUM) Abstract approved: Redacted for privacy Warren E.1Kronstad Leaf tissue from three high protein barley cultivars, CICICI and three low protein barley cultivars, Short Wocus. Nitrate reductase activity and inheritance of grain protein in six barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.

and Hordeum distichum) By. Abstract. Graduation date: Year: OAI identifier: oai: Abstract. In a field experiment under semi-arid conditions, doses from 0 to kg N ha −1 were applied to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Pané ’, a tall-stem variety.

The results obtained were the following: a) an increase of N fertilization increased the dry weight (DW), the NO 3 − content and the ‘in vivo’ nitrate reductase activity (NRA) of the wheat plant in growth Cited by: 3. Plant Physiol.

() 57, Nitrate Absorption by Barley II. INFLUENCE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE ACTIVITY' Received for publication J andin revised form Ma K. PRASAD RAO AND D. WILLIAM RAINS Department ofAgronomyandRange Science, ABSTRACT The influence of protein synthesis and nitrate reductase activity on nitrate absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare Cited by: Nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase activity, as well as free proline and soluble protein content were measured in eight soybean parent genotypes and six F1 hybrids.

Nitrite reductase (NiR) is a stromal enzyme that catalyses a six-electron step reduction of nitrite to ammonium using reduced Fd as electron donor. The holoenzyme is encoded by a single gene clustered with other nitrate assimilation genes (Figure C). The kD protein contains two redox centers: a [4Fe-4S] cluster and the characteristic.

NaR protein has also been suggested by Lillo () because she observed a 50 °o increase of NaR activity in barley while the amount of NaR protein remained constant. It is well known that NO, exposure increases NaR and nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in the shoots of many species (Zeevart, ; Wellburn, ).

The nitrite reductase (NiR) enzymes catalyse the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonium in the third step of the nitrate assimilation pathway (reviewed in Guerrero et al.

; Wray ). Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to to % of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of mM. Abstract. The inactivation of nitrate reductase in the leaves and roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

Mazurka) during and after extracting was 0 °C in the absence of casein, 25 per cent of ‘total’. i.e. maximal in vitro, nitrate reductase activity was lost during the 2 min extraction process, followed by a slower loss of activity while the extract was stored in ice.

was observed in leaf NR activity at panicle initiation stage with grain protein content (r= to ; Pactivity and grain protein content in pearl millet is first report on the aspect.

Keywords Pearl millet, Nitrate reductase, Grain protein, Biochemical marker. This enzyme is influenced by external conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different NO 3-/NH 4 + ratios and salinity on NRA (nitrate reductase activity) in shoots and roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

Betres) seedlings. Plants were grown in a growth chamber under controlled conditions. Abstract. Heating intact leaves of 14–day-old seedlings of wheat (Triticum aestivumL.), cv.

Albi for 10 min at 44–45°C brought about a decrease in nitrate reductase activity by 50–90% of the initial complete recovery of the enzyme activity occurred one to two days after the plants were returned to normal temperature conditions.

The synthesis of the nitrate reductase protein is regulated at the level of gene expression. Nitrate reductase is an exceptionally short-lived protein. Its half-life time is only a few hours. The rate of de novo synthesis of this enzyme is very high. Thus, by regulating its synthesis, the activity of nitrate reductase in the tissue can be.

NADH-nitrate reductase (NR) from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Steptoe) leaves was purified to specific activity of 19 μmol NO 2 − produced per min per mg protein with 27% yield by blue A sepharose affinity chromatography.

Reduction of NR by NADH resulted in spectral absorption maxima at (γ), (β) and (α) nm while oxidation by nitrate caused disappearance of α and β peaks and.

Root and shoot nitrate reductase activity and cross-reacting material decreased when nitrate-induced seedlings were transferred to a nitrate-free nutrient solution or from light to darkness. These results indicate that barley nitrate reductase levels are regulated by de novo synthesis and protein.

Deckard E L, Lucken K A, Joppa L R and Hammond J J Nitrate reductase activity, nitrogen distribution, grain yield and grain protein of tall and semidwarf near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum. Crop Sci. 17, – CrossRef Google Scholar. Nitrate reductase activity can be used as a biochemical tool for predicting grain yield and grain protein production.

Nitrate reductase can be used to test nitrate concentrations in biofluids. Nitrate reductase promotes amino acid production in tea leaves.

Under south Indian conditions, it is reported that tea plants sprayed with various. Nitrate reductase (NR), 1 1 The abbreviation used is: NR, nitrate reductase. the rate‐limiting enzyme, is a cytoplasmic enzyme usually found in both roots and shoots [ 4 ]. Although most NRs use NADH + H +, some can use either NADH or NADPH [ 5, 6 ].

Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was measured in leaves, stems and roots of six grain legumes supplied with different nitrate concentrations. The contribution of the stem relative to total plant activity was assessed.

In Lupinus angustifolius L., Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L., legumes of. Many of the past barley and wheat studies have focused on how variety and terroir impact agronomic yield. There are a few examples in the literature where alcohol yield was investigated [4,12, Abstract.

The flag and second leaves of wheat showed physiological and biochemical differences in the normal and water stressed plants. Although the flag leaf had lower enzyme activities in the control plants, in stressed plants it could continue nitrate assimilation better than the second and other leaves.

Nitrate reductase-deficient barley (Hordewm vudgare L.) mutants were assayedfor thepresenceofafunctional molybdenumcofactordetermined fromthe activity ofthemolybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, andfor nitratereductase-associatedactivities. Rocketimmunoelectrophoresiswas used to detect nitrate reductase cross-reacting material in the mutants.

Abstract. Nitrate reductase activity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Himalaya) aleurone layers has been determined in the intact tissue, using two different first method measures the rate of appearance of H 2 18 O produced during the reduction of KN 18 O second assay measures excreted nitrite resulting from nitrate reduction under anaerobic conditions.

Nitrate reductase activity is greater than the mM of nitrogen source, and is greater in leaves in relation to the roots, and glutamine does not inhibit its activity. In spite of the low apparent nitrate reductase activity, the nitrate reductase-deficient mutants are capable of substantial nitrate reduction.

Full text Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. It had a specific activity of 37 μmol nitrite formed min −1 mg protein−1 at 30°C; the highest specific activity among nitrate reductases so far isolated from a variety of barley cultivars.

FERRARI AND VARNER-NITRATE REDUCTASE IN ALEURONE LAYERS by shaking the reaction mixture vigorously until all the reducing agent was oxidized (evidenced by a return fromthe pale yellow to yellow color). Nitrite produced by enzymatic reduction of nitrate was de- termined by first adding ml of 1 %sulfanilamide in 3 N HCI, followed by ml of %Nnap- thylethylenediamine dihydrochloride.

whether variation in activity occurred. In this paper, nitrogen supply was used to manipulate shoot growth in two cassava cultivars with contrasting patterns of dry matter distribution. Lamina nitrate reductase activity was measured in relation to such nitrogen supply as well as parameters of shoot and leaf growth.

A complete discussion of the nitrate assimilation pathway can be found in the plant biochemistry text on reserve for the course in the campus library. Low levels of NR exist constitutively, but the majority of the enzyme activity is induced by exposure of plants to nitrate (Lewis, ).

The rise in NR activity is due to de novo synthesis of. Units/mg protein = mg protein/ml enzyme UNIT DEFINITION: One unit will reduce µmole of nitrate to nitrite per minute in a ß-NADH system at pH at 30°C. FINAL ASSAY CONCENTRATION: In a ml reaction mix, the final concentrations are 24 mM potassium phosphate, mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, mM potassium nitrate.

However, recent studies indicate the contribution of epistatic effects and genotype x environment interaction to grain protein content in barley (Kaczmarek et al., ).

In this study, a generation mean analysis methodology (Mather and Jinks, ) was used to estimate the inheritance of protein. were set equal to %, and the activity of nitrate reductase, when incubated in the presence of the test compounds, was then expressed as a percentage of the appropriate control.

Incorporation of Radioactivity from"4C-Leucine into Barley Root Protein. To determine what effect the feeding of am-monium to excised barley roots had on general. Abstract. The optimum in vivo nitrate reductase (NR) assay medium for soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves was 50 m m KNO 3, 1% (v/v) 1- propanol, and m m potassium phosphate buffer (pH ).

Loss of in vivo NR activity from leaves of soybeans exposed to dark was fastest at 40 C and slowest at 20 C. However, by the end of a hr dark period, even those plants exposed to the lowest.

The induction of nitrate reductase activity in barley leaves normally requires light in addition to nitrate. However, nitrate reductase activity was induced in darkness in detached etiolated leaves when these were incubated with nitrate and glycollate.

Other effective carbon compounds were sucrose, glucose or phosphoglyceric acid. Characterization of nitrate reductase-deficient barley mutants.

Mol. Gen. Genet. Sarah A. Ryan 1 James E. Harper- USDA 1Present address: CSIRO, PO BoxCanberra City, ACTAUSTRALIA. 33 2) Selection and inheritance of nitrate reductase mutants in soybeans. Our primary objective in looking for nitrate reductase (NR.

Short-term induction of nitrate reductase Leaves of etiolated barley plants (grown in the dark) were placed in induction medium in the dark for periods of time indicated. Activity is expressed in terms of NO; formed ~ ~~ Induction medium Nitrate-reductase activity after Ih 2h 3h nmol x g fresh wt-' h- ' 84 56 56 KN03 25mM 56 ().

Inheritance of carbon isotope discrimination in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Inheritance of grain proteins in wheat. Inheritance of nitrate reductase activity, grain protein, and straw protein in a Hard Red Winter Wheat cross.

Inheritance of resistance to yellowberry in durum wheat. Nitrate reductase-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants were assayed for the presence of a functional molybdenum cofactor determined from the activity of the molybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, and for nitrate reductase-associated activities.

Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to detect nitrate reductase cross-reacting material in the mutants. The naked six-rowed barleys have stiff straw, large caryopses, a high yielding ability, and good drought resistance (Bakhteev, ). The reaction to vernalisation is low to medium, the daylength response is neutral.

Barley has been traditionally used for bread making (Attene et al., ) and, more recently, also for pasta (Cattivelli et al.nitrate reductase activity. In the morning, nitrate reduc­ tase activity of sorghum leaves is mainly affected by solar radiation and the activity increases as solar radiation in­ creases until noon.

As the leaf water potential decreases it becomes the dominant influence and nitrate reductase activity decreases accordingly (Teare et al., ).Nitrate reductaseless or-deficient mutants would be useful for studying the regulation of nitrate reductase and eventually the role of nitrate reductase in total protein metabolism.

Chlorate has been used to identify nitrate reductase-deficient mutants in Arabidopsis (1). We screened approximatelyM3 seedlings from azide treated Steptoe.

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